This document is part of the Central Committee Report approved by the 4th Congress in November 1996.
I. THE WORLD
Today it has become more clear that our globe, starting by the 1990s, entered a new period. The first shock of the attacks by the Richs Society of the North upon the Oppressed World and the socialist countries, has been left in the past.
Two resistance fronts against the New World Order project of the USA are emerging. The first one is the resistance of the Oppressed World, socialist countries and the labouring classes in the capitalist countries. The other is the opposition of the imperialist states against the establishment of the New World Order under the leadership of USA.
The main goal of the New World Order is the recolonization of the Oppressed World. With this aim, through the destruction of the domestic markets, unrestricted integration with world markets will be established. And the national states which depend upon these domestic markets will be destroyed and transformed entirely to the oppression mechanisms in the service of imperialism.
Imperialism while destroying the national states, attempts to fill up the emerging organizational vacuum with so-called non-governmental organizations (NGOs) that are closely connected with imperialist governments. Thus, imperialists under the masking of the identity pluralism and civil organization, etc., turn their eyes to controlling the all organizational activity in the Oppressed World.
Although oppressing the labourers within its territory, national state on the other hand, via preserving the domestic market to some extent restricts imperialist exploitation. Under these circumstances, there is a remarkable resistance potential of, at first, the labouring classes of the Oppressed World and of all patriotic forces, those exist on the basis of certain domestic market, against the New World Order.
Thus, in the South, there begins a new period, in which the mass movements against the New World Order will be rising. India and Bangladesh in Asia, are the remarkable examples because of the intensity of these struggles. Now, Left Front is in power in India. In Nepal, the Communist Party (United Marxist-Leninist) is a candidate for power. In Philippines, the Communist Party enforces government to go negotiation . The Central Asian Turkic states hold their ties alive with People’s Republic of China and Russia.
USA’s attempts towards establishment of the New Middle Eastern Order have not been so successful as compared to the expectations. Both the regional forces and the other imperialist states undertake oppositions on different domains. Besides the attempts to gather by the Arabic countries, newly emerging close relations between Iran and Syria may affect the regional balance of forces. The USA could not succeed in consolidating the Kurdish regime that was established in Northern Iraq.
Besides these, the guerrilla movements, mass movements in Latin America, in Bolivia, Peru and Mexico have been arising. In El Salvador and Guatemala, the guerrilla movements that were already being unable to obtain any successful results from the negotiation with the Governments, have reinforced their ties with the masses and re-started the armed struggle. In Brasilia, the gigantic country of the Latin America, mass movements are progressing.
Labour Movements in Capitalist Countries
Stagnation in capitalist system and the restriction of the social rights have led to the rise of a new mass movement. In metropolises of the capitalism, such as Germany, France, Italy and Japan and in other capitalist countries, student movements and strikes are expanding.
The socialist countries, as being on the same front with the Oppressed World, enter the near future in more suitable conditions.
Today, if Peoples Republic of China is not included, it will be easily seen that the growth in the World Economy has stopped. China has become the only leading force in the world economy with her 12% annual rate of growth. Imperialists are afraid of the economic and political accumulation that China will achieve in the first quarter of the 21st century.
China’s socialist experience has once more revealed that the most productive force is not the machines but the working class itself. In addition, this experience has also shown that the revolution is not only for the demolition of the old regime but for constitution of the new revolutionary class which will establish the new regime. If there had been no revolution in China, there would not be Chinese labourer today. If there had been no such a revolutionary class, there would not be Chinese miracle today. It is the revolution, it is the man that the practice of revolution has created, it is the people as the founder of the new society, distinguish China from her neighbours such as Afghanistan, Pakistan which are in the capitalist world. This is an age difference. China has entered a new era in a half century and leaped forward.
China, via socialism, on the 8% of the total area of the overall world, feeds 25% of the world population. What is more important, Chinese Revolution has created a self-respecting man and woman having a distinctive personality and people persisting against imperialism. Chinese experience also provides us a very important practice and theoretical heritage within the context of class struggles during the establishment of the socialism.
Vanguard led by Mao, although being at the top of the state and the Party, through mobilizing ordinary labouring masses against degeneration within the state apparatus and the Party, has provided an important experience and lessons for the socialist progress in the 21st century.
Every socialism bears the dangers of capitalist restoration. Threat towards restoration of capitalism is because of the very nature of the socialism. Class struggle never lasts during the whole socialism period. China will go further via experiencing and resolving this contradiction.
However, it is interesting that the most of the socialists in the world leave themselves apart from the Chinas remarkable successes today. Some parts of the socialists, after the defeats of Soviet Union and the Eastern Europe have lost their strength to propagandize the successes of the socialism.
If we look from the Oppressed World, as recognized by the imperialist ideologists, China is the major obstacle against New World Order.
After the disintegration of the Soviet Union, Cuba, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea and Vietnam faced drastic problems. However the hard days are over. Cuba is again on the smooth development path. The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, as faced serious natural disasters, now solves her problems and invalidates the imperialisms expectations of catastrophe. Vietnam has entered a new period of rapid economic growth.
In the Eastern European countries functioning as a buffer zone between the Oppressor World and the Oppressed World, masses turn their eyes again towards socialism. Communist parties are meeting with successes in the elections and coming to the power. Capitalism has brought violence among the nations, moral depression and social decay. Thus it could not succeed in establishing austerity.
The major process in the Northern semi-sphere is towards multi-polarity. In relation with other imperialist countries, USA loses her leading position in the early 1990s. Germany-centered Europe and Japan had already accepted the superiority of the USA just before the dissolution of the Soviet Union. However, now they come to the stage as the new super forces. Russia makes remarkable progresses towards national unity.
Germany has taken up new positions in the Middle East and in the Eastern Europe. Germany together with her close ally, France, has begun to challenge the USA’s role in the Middle East and to set her chain of allies. German-France alliance launches the programs of developing nuclear weapons.
However, Japan, besides the Eastern and South-eastern Asia, has made remarkable attempts in Latin America and the Middle East. Japan rapidly improves her military strength. Germany and Japan together are in preparation of setting political mechanisms to develop economic relations between Asia and Europe.
Position of Russia is so different. This super state is located at the very centre of the imperialist conflicts that are to determine the future of the world. What happens in the Geography of Chaos where the fights among the countries and the class struggle intersect with each other, are of importance from the perspective of the world revolutionary movement.
II. GEOGRAPHY OF CHAOS
Dividers and the Dividends
There emerged a Geography of Chaos after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Now the area extending from the East Europe to the Pacific Ocean comes to be re-divided.
Dividers are the US and Europe. Although not coming to the stage as an armed force, we may add Japan to these. There are both competition and collaboration among these three super states. They are all in collaboration with each other against the Oppressed World. However, to extract the lions share, they never give up getting each other fired.
Russia is both the divider and the divided. The divider, because Russia is one of the four biggest imperialist states and because of its armed power. She still claims for certain shares from partitioning of the world. She is also a divided country, because partitioned area comprises the lands that have been previously controlled by or have been the focus of concern of Moscow. Russia is one of the four super forces. However, she has been defeated and pushed to the Third World. Russian case reminds us Germany in the post-war period of the First World War. Besides Russia, Yugoslavia, Iraq, Central Asian Turkic states, Caucasia, Turkey and Iran were/are also being subject to partitioning. US agencies in plain words call these countries as axes countries. Some of these were already divided. And the others have been taken on the agenda of partitioning. All these countries share a common fate.
The first victims of this operation, by the Gulf War, have been Iraq -via bloodless way- Czechoslovakia-via most bloody way-Yugoslavia and Caucasia. The result is as follows: Czechoslovakia was divided. In Iraq and in Bosnia-Herzegovina, pro-American tiny states were established. Croatia has been left to Germany. Georgia has been lined up by Abkhazians. Armenia and Azerbaijan were drawn into a war against each other. And they have become more beholden to imperialism. Thus, Turkey’s people have to complete it’s a hundred year-old process of democratic revolution on such a geography. USA and her collaborationists because of their strategies have been producing illusions for a long time. If Turkey is taken in them, she will see herself as though she were among the dividing countries. However the real situation is as follows: Turkey is among the partitioned countries of the Geography of Chaos. Both the patriotic forces favoring Turkey’s independence and the forces of proletarian revolution, at first, have to recognize this fact.
Conflicts Among the Oppressed Countries
In partitioning the region, imperialism manipulates the national conflicts and rivalries among the religious sects. The Theory of Culture Fights was produced at the ideological headquarters of the world capitals. Now, these scatter numbers of national, ethnic and religious identities around. Research foundations controlled by imperialism are searching for identity with great effort. International organizations are in a hard effort for minority rights! Imperialism never recognizes human rights while exploiting the labouring masses. However, as to minorities, imperialism pretends as a champion of “human right”.
When small peoples leap for a just struggle against the states which oppress themselves, because of their limited strength, a time later, they clutch at big states. That is why; national and religious identities are exaggerated by the imperialist forces. From the perspective of polarization at world scale, it can be easily seen that those small nations and religious minorities come to be the pawns of the imperialism. The cases of Bosnians and some Caucasian peoples and Northern Iraqian Kurds are the evident.
This is the very point where the politics, strategy and the leadership are of great necessity. Resistance against national oppression is a right. However, to utilize this right, not for being subjected to more oppression or distraught but for success is the wisdom. The line connecting the wisdom with the rightfulness is to fight against imperialism.
As far as the peoples are not taking their positions according to the polarization at global scale, even they show heroism, they become trampled on. When they attempt to solve the national question through fighting with the nations nearby themselves, they can easily find numbers of ready-made justifications. There might be those who encourage these on this way. However, the result, beyond a disappointment, would be calamity. Oppressed peoples are in need of taking a position on revolutionary front and of a scientific guide, rather than heroism.
Right can be won by might. And the might lies in the unity of the oppressed nations at the world scale. However against whom? Obviously against the imperialism as the basis and axis of the national oppression. In our epoch national question is a part of the question of an extensive struggle against imperialism.
To unite is a necessity for the Oppressed Humanity. However, it is not easy. There are problems among themselves, going back to the centuries. And these problems are continuously instigated. However, there is no other solution to the problem. After having certain experiences, the Oppressed Peoples will soon grasp this fact and will learn to be respectful to others interests and rights and to reconcile with each other. At this point, Turkey is one of the countries having a remarkable accumulation to play a leading role among the divided countries.
Role of the Asia in Revolution
We are still living in the age of proletarian revolution and the wars of independence. As Lenin stated in the beginning of this century, the revolution would realize at the weak chain of the imperialism. Revolution in one of the countries means the defeat of the imperialist forces in that place. Therefore, there is a need to pursue a strategy at the scale of Geography of Chaos and even at the world scale. This geography comprises Asia, Balkans and the countries of the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
To overcome imperialism and to confront New World Order in one country, there must be established a broad alliance between divided countries of the Geography of Chaos and the countries resisting imperialism. In these circumstances, although the laboring classes and all the patriotic forces are the major forces of revolution, overall resistances of the divided countries are indirect forces of revolution.
Workers Party, thus, gives a great attention to the formation of a broad alliance on the Geography of Chaos and plays an active role with this aim.
Today, Asia is the focal point of the World Revolution both in domains of the Oppressed Peoples and the nation states committed to the preservation of their independence. People’s Republic of China is at the centre of the Asia and her rapidly growing economy is an important factor for the struggle against the imperialism. Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea and Vietnam with their successes in resisting imperialism will make major contributions to the rise of Asia. India with her size of population and her resistance potentials is a major force of an Asian alternative. Capitalism, on the Geography of Chaos could not establish its own order. It has brought nothing more than tragedies, sorrow and misery. Russia with her vast opportunities and her revolutionary tradition will make determining contributions to Asian take-off.
In all domains, Turkey has a scale of developing and preserving a proletarian revolution. She is one of the vanguard countries of the Oppressed World. Our country can play an important role in Asian take-off via reinforcing the solidarity with Turkic Republics, against imperialism.
The major stroke upon the New World Order will come from Asia. The second wave of the socialism will start with Asian Rebel against the imperialism.
Strategy of the Revolution on the Geography of Chaos
We may summarize the revolutionary strategy on the Geography of Chaos as follows:
1. To unite the labouring classes and the patriotic forces against the imperialism and it’s collaborationists.
2. To unite the divided countries against dividing countries; in other words, Eurasian Alternative/Asian Alliance.
3. To solve the problems among the countries and the peoples of the Geography of Chaos in peaceful ways.
4. To utilize and benefit from all the contradictions among the dividing countries.
5. To direct the main stroke upon US imperialism and it’s collaborationists.
6. To recognize the struggle for independence as the central mission of the revolutionary movement.
7. To insist on the guidance of the Scientific Socialism and the socialist ideals, on the basis of alliance between workers and the peasants, under the leadership of the working class.
III. ALTERNATIVES FOR THE FUTURE
The policies that will be pursued by the Turkish State and the other Asian states are of great importance for the point of view of the proletarian revolutions and socialist movement. Close relations, cooperation and alliances among the Asian countries will necessarily weaken imperialism. Thus besides the struggles of the labouring classes, solidarity among the Asian countries is a major factor in formation of the weak chains of imperialism.
Because of aiming at a proletarian power, Worker’s Party has concerned with foreign policy and put forward an alternative against imperialism.
Now, today Turkey has two alternatives ahead: Either the “Second Republic” via taking the ‘subcontractor” role for the USA or the independence and democracy via the Eurasian Alternative.
“Common Fate” Shared with USA
Turkey, in the process of her dependence upon USA, has come to a crossroads. Pro-American foreign policy is in need of shifting to an upper gear. Washington does not satisfy with Turkey’s dependent foreign policy and wants more than this.
Comprador bourgeoisie attempts to get rid of its dilemma via submitting to the ‘subcontractor role” for the USA. The first dilemma of the system is economic crisis resulting from dependence upon imperialism. The second is the insistence on the violent methods in Kurdish Problem.
Economic costs of dependence on USA are evident. Embargo imposed upon Iraq is the most recent one. Turkey for the sake of US’ interests, in fact, imposed an embargo upon herself and lost 10 milliard dollars annually and 50 milliard dollars totally. She herself, has destroyed her economy. US Reports declares that Turkey will disintegrate in two years. They have also written similar reports on Yugoslavia and Iraq. Now, those who govern Turkey are in collaboration with those who destroy the national economy.
USA has caught Turkey in a weak position. US Government utilizes the issues such as Kurdish Problem and the disputes on natural gas and petroleum pipe-line routes and on water resources, to push Turkey against her neighbours.
In the process left behind, as a result of, on the one hand, USA’s contrivances and the dictates, on the other hand, pro-American, US-manipulated policies pursued by Kenan Evren’s Junta and the Turgut Özal and Tansu Çiller Governments, there emerged a common fate between dominant forces of Turkey and USA.
After the Gulf War USA followed a line that was forcing Turkey to take the patronage of the colonial government established by herself. There were two alternatives: Either submitting to these dictates or detaining USA. This situation has determined the major splits within Turkish State. However, towards the end of 1990s, dominant forces in Turkey seemed to accept the common fate with USA. Even including Ecevit, all of them could tolerate the convention with Israel. So Turkey has been moved to the USA-Israel Axis in the Middle East, in Balkans, and in Caucasia. Therefore, Turkish General Staff, similar to the period prior to September 1994, made statements such as “interventive capacity in crisis zones”. This policy draws Turkey into indefinite and risky situations and even pushes Turkey against the countries that share the common interest with herself. If not prevented, this process may culminate in a pro-American Junta of Generals. Because, the policy of an active intervention into crisis zones” cannot be pursued in a parliamentary regime.
In this case, there are two thresholds in front of Turkey: To pay the dependency upon USA by blood or to undertake vanguard roles in upheaval of the Oppressed World, as similar to the situation in the aftermath of the First World War.
Now Turkey rapidly moves to a crossroads where she will have to define her true position to survive.
In fact, there is no real common fate between USA and Turkey. This common fate belongs not to the people but to a small group of collaborationists. The right place of Turkey is not on the side of those dividing the Geography of Chaos. Our country is a part of the Oppressed World and among the divided countries of the Geography of Chaos. We have to realize and also implement this very fact, if we are to pursue an independent line and to enter a process of democratization.
Workers’ Party, in accordance with the goal of democratic people’s revolution and the independence of the country, has developed and put forward the Eurasian Alternative against the pro-American foreign policy.
Eurasian Alternative is the most realist and the feasible one. Besides, it can bring grand forces together both within the country and abroad and can trigger the rise of the Oppressed World in the 21st century. Likewise what our War of Independence had done in the Oppressed World in the aftermath of 1917 Revolution.
Turkey has an important accumulation. Conditions themselves provide opportunities to turn ourselves to an independent line in economy and in politics. In contrast, the difficult one is to take position against our neighbours and even against Europe for the sake of USA’s interests. However, easy one is to pursue an independent and self-respecting policy and to take no roles in imperialist rivalries among the big states.
Therefore, to prevent the conflicts among the nations and the religious sects, is a vital question for Turkey. Because Yugoslavian Sevres is also the Sevres of Turkey. Disintegration of Iraq is also that of Turkey. USA obviously would benefit from the re-disintegration of Russia. Yet, this would merely intensify the Turkey’s yoke.
Turkey, on the Geography of Chaos, has not to take part in rivalries among the nations and among the religious sects. She must pursue an active and peaceful policy towards reconciling the sides. Via this policy, Turkey will make friends in Balkans, Caucasia, Middle East, and Asia and in all over the world.
Turkey must end up obeying the embargo and must re-establish her economic relations with Iraq. Friendly relations should be developed with Balkan countries including Yugoslavia and Iran.
Turkey and Russia because of their divided country position in Today’s world must be in good relations with each other. In relation with the issues such as Chechen and Kurdish problems, two countries must help each other to find out peaceful solutions on the basis of equity in rights. Russia gets more involved in Kurdish Problem and Turkey interferes in Chechen Problem for the sake of USA’s interests. These are all for the disadvantage of Kurdish and Chechen Peoples.
Besides these, interests of the Turkic Republics and Turkey also necessitate the friendships. Our country provides vast opportunities for economic cooperation with Russia. Central Asian Turkic Republics will also benefit from this relationship. The routes of the pipelines can be drawn according to common interests.
Our country has to go more comprehensive and multi-dimensional cooperation especially with People’s Republic of China and with other Asian countries and with her neighbours. Today the conditions are suitable for this cooperation. Any close relations between China and Russia will provide Turkey, new opportunities for manoeuvre.
Turkic states in Central Asia can play the role of a bridge tying Turkey, Russia, Iran and the People’s Republic of China.
However, Turkey is governed not from Ankara but from Washington. Therefore, the primary problem is to develop a patriotic and people’s alternative for power that will govern Turkey from Turkey.